Temple of Ramses II is the largest Temple in Abu Simbel. The site of Abu Simbel was built on the west bank of theNile River, between the first and second cataracts of the Nile. The facade of Ramses II temple is about 38 meters long and 31 meters high, Four colossal 20 meter statues of the pharaoh with the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt decorate the facade of the temple, two on each side, one of them is badly damaged due to an ancient earthquake, each statue is 67 feet in height, representing the king wearing the double crown of Upper and Lower Egypt. The temple is dedicated to the most important gods of the New Kingdom, Ptah, Amun-Re and Re-Harakhte (sun god of Heliopolis), as well as to the Pharaoh Ramses II himself.
The interior of the temple stretches into the mountain for about 64 meters. The temple`s first court contains eight pillars adorned by statues of Ramses II, four on each side, the walls are carved with scenes representing the king`s battles and the great victory of battle of Kadesh. The inner part of the temple has the same triangular layout that most ancient Egyptian temples follow, with rooms decreasing in size from the entrance to the sanctuary. It is believed that the axis of the temple was positioned by the ancient Egyptian architects in such a way that on October 21 and February 21, the rays of the sun would penetrate the sanctuary and illuminate the sculptures on the back wall, except for the statue of Ptah, the god connected with the Underworld, who always remained in the dark.