Deir el-Medina is an ancient Egyptian village which was home to the artisans who worked on the tombs in the Valley of the Kings during the 18th to 20th dynasties of the New Kingdom period (ca. 1550–1080 BC) The settlement's ancient name was "Set Maat" (translated as "The Place of Truth"), and the workmen who lived there were called “Servants in the Place of Truth”. During the Christian era the temple of Hathor was converted into a Church from which the Arabic name Deir el-Medina ("the monastery of the town") is derived. 


The Ptolemaic temple is primarily dedicated to Hathor, with sanctuaries also for Amun-Sokar-Osiris and Amun-Re-Osiris. It is very small being only 15 x 24 meters and is the last in a series of temples on this site going back to the foundation of the village. Surrounded by a 50 square meter enclosure wall, it is at the Northern end of the village, the opposite end to the tombs of Senedjem and Anherkhau. 


Today's structure was built and decorated by Ptolemy IV Philopater and and several later Ptolemaic Kings in a rock bay to replace an earlier building of the New Kingdom that had been damaged by the Persians and repaired by Ptolemy II and III. A cult terrace was constructed opposite to the temple entrance, in the east wall of the enclosure. The temple itself is fronted by a staircase of Ramesses II. The plain exterior walls of the temple enclosed an interesting architectural arrangement that unites an entrance hall or forecourt, which includes columns with papyrus capitals done in the late period style, with the facade of a pronaos. The pronaos front rises on a step behind the entrance hall and has two columns with composite capitals in antis.

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